Backing up data is a process of storing redundant copies of files and directories located on local disks on removable media, usually magnetic tapes. Redundant copies can be used to restore if the original files are lost or damaged. The main task of backup storage should be highlighted to ensure the continuity of the modern enterprise. The importance of regular backups is largely due to the dependence of enterprises, organizations and individuals on information stored and processed by computers.
We all prefer to make reserves, in any area of life it is an absolutely irreplaceable thing, in that there is an emergency storage for some personal needs and requirements. Therefore, today the relevance and importance of backups is undoubtedly of great importance in life. No matter how much technology is developed today, the backup process always takes place and there will never be that this process loses its relevance or value. Even if there are a lot of duplicated components on your server, all the data can be on an expensive array with a large excess, no one is immune from the fact that there will be logical errors, there will be a certain human factor.
First of all, backup storage is necessary in order to be able to restore information in a very quick and convenient way, in the event that a working copy of the information may be lost for any reason: restoration of documents, settings, certain programs and other things. The advantage of backup storage is also that it solves the problem of data transfer and working with shared documents.
Since this has already been noted, backups (manually or using special programs) must be performed regularly, and if you have not yet backed up important files, be sure to do this, and on a separate device: a second HDD, external drive, USB flash drive , DVD, cloud storage, etc.
It is known that typical and conventional devices for storing information, we are talking about hard drives, do not provide properly and do not show a high level of security for stored information. For long-term data storage, devices with sequential access to information are used – magnetic tape drives (tape drives).
What is needed for a backup system
To begin with, it is necessary to understand that reliability is necessary for storing information, this is ensured by the use of storage systems in fault-tolerant equipment, duplication of information, and in case of destruction of one of the copies by replacing the lost copy of the other. It is also important to consider that low-platform compliance is observed – this is the full functioning of the system in a heterogeneous network. This implies that the server part of this system will work in various operating environments.
Also, in order to be able to use this backup system, automation is needed for ease of operation. It is necessary to create as many moments as possible, where everything will be automated, with minimal involvement of users and administrators.
RPO – recovery point objective
Now we will consider a type of backup like RPO. This type is the main recovery point for files that need to be restored from the backup storage in order to resume normal operation if a computer, system or network fails as a result of a hardware, program or communication failure. After determining the RPO for this computer, system or network, the minimum frequency is determined. In it, the backup process itself must also be performed. This, along with the target recovery time (RTO), helps administrators select the best disaster recovery technologies and procedures.
A Recovery Point Objective (RPO) describes the amount of time elapsed during a failure before the amount of lost data during this period exceeds the maximum threshold or “tolerance” of the Business Continuity Plan.
Take for example: if the RPO is four days, which is equivalent to 96 hours, then backups should be made accordingly at intervals of every 96 hours. If the RPO is four days (96 hours), then backups should be made of 96 hours or less. In this situation, a tape or recordable compact disc (CD-R) may be sufficient. The main thing that is worth noting is that the recovery target is the most important parameter of the so-called “disaster recovery” plan and the protection of personal data.
RPOs are always set according to the refresh rate of your file system. This ensures that after a service interruption, your recovered operations will contain the latest version of your data. For example, frequently updated files require a short RPO. This means that after a disruptive event, operations can be restored with minimal data loss. When you choose the best fail-safe solution for yourself, it is important to consider your organization’s RPO to avoid losing an unacceptable amount of data when switching to a backup server.
RTO — Recovery Time Objective.
Disaster recovery is represented by RTO initials. It includes a set of tools and procedures that can restore or maintain vital technological infrastructure and systems after a natural or man-made disaster. This type of recovery focuses on IT or technology systems supporting critical business functions.
This type of backup storage is amazing: it measures the maximum period of time in which recent personal data could be permanently deleted in the event of any incident. If you have a plan to restore all data to the last RPO backup is the maximum interval between backups that have been safely deleted in the vault. The idea that people had the opportunity to restore backups (through disaster recovery) was developed about 40 years ago, when many heads of computer centers realized that they are very dependent and will continue to be even more dependent on their computer systems!
These systems (RPO and RTO) are critical for analyzing business impacts and for managing business continuity. Without their correct definition, you would have guessed it – and fortunetelling is the best way to ensure that you never recover from a disaster.
Backup storage softwares
To back up a single user, standard utilities such as ntbackup on Windows or tar on Unix systems are sufficient. They use the above methods of backup storage and determine the fact of file changes, but their application throughout the enterprise does not seem appropriate. We will examine each utility in more detail in order to give an impression of what each of itself is and which one will be the best for you.
Windows Backup Utility files, such as ntbackup.exe, use the .exe extension. The file is considered a Win32 EXE (Executable Application) file and was first created by Microsoft for the Microsoft Windows® Operating System software package.
The first version of ntbackup.exe for Windows XP was introduced on October 25, 2001. on Windows XP. According to our records, this is the only version of the file from Microsoft.
It can be found under the name “Data Archiving”. The ntbackup utility is part of the Windows NT family, in particular, Windows XP. It is available through the Start menu, the section “All Programs – Accessories – Utilities”. Another, faster way to start ntbackup is through the Run window (Start – Run, or a combination of Win + R).
The NTBACKUP program has the following advantages:
- This program is free; You don’t have to buy third-party archiving utilities.
- Since this program is included in NT, the probability of server instability is almost zero.
- NTBACKUP can archive data in two supported file systems – FAT and NTFS. In addition, it is just as easy to recover data in any of these systems.
In addition to its relatively good and good qualities, this utility also has some disadvantages:
- NTBACKUP supports only one storage medium – magnetic tapes. You cannot create an archive on another hard drive or floppy disk, or even on a network drive over a network.
- NTBACKUP does not have a built-in scheduler; To perform automatic archiving, you have to write a batch file (see later in this chapter).
- The program is not able to archive system registries on remote computers – this task is performed only in local mode. In order to archive the registries of all domain controllers, you will have to physically connect the tape drive to each of them. However, files can be archived in both local and remote modes.
- NTBACKUP only performs ‘file-by-file’ archiving and does not create disk images.
Another of the most popular ways to create a simple backup is to archive data using tar. The advantages of this method are the possibility of incremental backup (adding files to an existing archive, deleting or changing those), the ability to extract individual files from the archive, and the presence of tar in almost any Linux system.
We offer some Options for this backup utility.
-A —concatenate Attach an existing archive to another
-c —create Create a new archive
-d –-diff –delete Check the difference between archives Delete file from existing archive
-r —append Attach files to end of archive
-t —list List archive contents
-u —update Update archive with newer files with the same name
-x —extract Extract files from archive
Further, we offer on-site operations, which will be presented below:
-C dir –directory = DIR Change directory before performing operation on dir
-f file –file Output the result to a file (or device) file
-j —bzip2 Redirect output to bzip2 command
-p –same-permissions Save all file permissions
-v —verbose Print process details
-z —gzip Redirect output to gzip command
Another Linux-based utility we offer for consideration. It is called Backupninja. It is a very powerful backup tool. With its permission, users can create backup activity configuration files that are placed, or can be placed in the /etc/backup.d/ directory. It helps you perform secure, remote, and incremental backups over the network. It has the following functions:
- Easily reads configuration files like ini.
- Backup schedule Users can choose when status messages are sent to them.
- Easily create a backup configuration file using the console-based wizard (ninjahelper).
- Works with Linux-Vserver
This program serves as a convenient wrapper for other utilities, allows you to centrally manage the archiving process.
apt-get install backupninja
On how to automate database backups using backupninja, please read the instructions
Key features of backupninja:
- Files are very easy to read ini style.
- You can even add a script to handle new types of backups. Backup actions can be scheduled.
- You can choose when letters with a status report are sent to you by mail (always, with a warning, with an error, never) console wizard (ninjahelper) simplifies creating backup action configuration files passwords are never sent through the command line to auxiliary programs works with Linux-vservers
In more detail we suggest to deal with this utility in the instructions