Linux operating system – Most Popular Version of UNIX Operating Systems

Introduction to Linux

Linux operating system today in the world is very popular. It is a kind of open source software and is free for use by any user. This operating system appeared in the early 1990s, and since the beginning of the 2000s, has gained even greater popularity. Linux systems are essential for supercomputers and servers (both dedicated and virtual).

The operating system consists of several basic programs needed by a personal computer so that it can communicate and receive instructions from users. Read and write data to hard drives, tapes and printers; control memory usage; run other programs. The most important part of the OS is the kernel. On the GNU/Linux system, the kernel is Linux. The rest of the system consists of other programs, many of which are written by the GNU project. Since a single Linux kernel is not the entire operating system, we prefer to use the term “GNU / Linux” to refer to systems that many mistakenly call “Linux”. Recently, this operating system is gaining popularity in home and personal computers, as well as in corporate environments.

Linux system components

The Linux operating system can be divided into three major components:

  • Kernel – it is the main part of this operating system. It is responsible for absolutely all types of activities and consists of a large number of different types of modules, which allows interaction with basic equipment. Also, this is what provides applications with coordinated access to computer resources.
  • System Library – The Linux system library is a special function or program through which system utilities gain access to the kernel and its functionality. It is not necessary to have access to the kernel module code in order to implement most of the functions of the operating system using the system library
  • System Utility – Programs are essential and important in order to perform various levels of individual tasks


Ubuntu is an operating system based on the foundation of GNU/Linux. The developers of this OS is the company Canonical. Today, this operating system is popular and has approximately 22 million users worldwide. Among all Linux distributions, this OS is the most popular, with regard to web servers.

As for updates of this system, they are released every 5-6 months and are supported by security updates every 8-9 months.


This operating system uses the KDE graphical environment. This distribution was supported and was under development until version 12.04. This project was part of the Ubuntu project and updates are released every six months. This operating system was introduced for the first time on December 10, 2004 in Spain. The first version came into use on April 8, 2005. Version 5.04 called “Hoary Hedhehog”


Mint is another Linux distribution that was based on Ubuntu and Debian. The main objectives of this distribution is to provide users with a convenient and simple interface + ease of use. The founder of this distribution is Clement Lefebvre.

The composition of this operating system includes a menu called “GNOME”. This menu contains built-in contextual search, which allows you to install new packages and applications in the repositories, without departing from the search string


A Linux distribution that developed its own DDE desktop environment, the music player Deepin, the DMovie Video Player, the Deepin Store application center.This distribution has a very wide range of language panel choices – there are about 30 of them!

This distribution is very easy to use, even for users who are not familiar with the Linux platform, but this operating system is known for its slow loading speed and in standby mode it consumes large memory loads.

PC Linux OS

This Linux Distribution has the ability to install the operating system on your hard drive. This operating system was founded on October 24, 2003 and is included in the Linux-based top distribution kits. PCLinuxOS is highlighted using the APT package management utility. It also includes support system for popular multimedia formats and a large number of drivers embedded.

The latest update version of this system was released in June 2016. This was version 2018.06. Since 2003, the version has been updated 30 times already, which makes it possible to expand the capabilities of this system and allows it to be one of the most popular Linux-based systems.

Linux Lite

This is a Linux distribution that is designed for already obsolete hardware. The Linux operating system family considered it necessary and important to add this particular system for computer models that are not new and fairly well productive.

The developers goal is very interesting – to introduce Windows users through Linux Lite! The developers of this system do not call it anything else the “gateway operating system” This system appeared in 2012 with the name “Amethyst” The latest version (today) was released on March 31, 2019, version 4.4 based on Ubuntu 18.04

Here are some utilities:

  • Lite welcome
  • Lite sounds
  • Lite Updates Notify
  • Lite Network Shares

Zorin OS

This distribution was introduced in 2008, and its approximate number is about 4,000 users. This is a distribution kit whose interface was designed to make it as close as possible to Windows Explorer. It includes paid and free versions, and the minimum system requirements are:

  •     1 GHz x86 processor
  •     5 GB of hard disk space
  •     512 MB of system memory (RAM)
  • video card with 640×480

The first version was released in 2009. Many people in it pointed out that it gives an opportunity to easily collect the concept of the appearance of the desktop and browsers.

Elementary OS

A distribution that was based on Ubuntu. It is the flagship and uses the Pantheon desktop environment. The developers of this operating system have established for themselves several main ideas: this is minimal documentation, the avoidance of configurations and also brevity, hence the name “elementary OS”. By the time they were created, many noted exactly that its design is very similar to mac OS.

The founder of the system is Daniel Foret. He argued that this project is not intended to compete with existing projects that are open source, but to expand their capabilities! Total released 8 versions, the last was October 16, 2018.


This operating system was based on the Slackware distribution and is a distinctive distribution from the latest package format, as well as features in settings and administration. The release cycle of new versions and updates is one year.The OpenSUSE project includes a wiki project, a portal for users, “Build Service” for developers [8], an art project for designers, a mailing list and IRC channels in different languages.

Since 1994, various projects and updates of this OS have been released. The latest version is 15.1 openSUSE Leap, released on May 22, 2019. The advantages of the system are:

  • Large selection of packages
  • A large set of drivers
  • Easy system user YaST settings


Some items have been added to this distribution that are used on Red Hat Enterprise Linux in the future. The Fedora project has a definite goal, which is to build a complete OS from existing software. System updates are available in open access every half a year, and updates are also about new versions of the Linux kernel. It has software that is distributed under various free licenses.


Debian is an operating system in which the Linux kernel is used or otherwise called FreeBSD. Work on this operating system began in August 1993. This operating system has a very chicory range of different features.Most of the basic tools are from GNU projects; they are the placeholders of the operating system.

To date, Debian has released 12 up The current stable version includes over fifty one thousand software packages for ten architectures based on the Linux kernel.The current version of Debian includes more than 51.000 software packages for ten Linux-based architectures dates to its system, the latest was version 7.0. It was released on May 31, 2018.


It is one of the first Linux distributions. Its first version was released on July 17 in 1993. Today, the version of Slackware64 Linux is available at the link: allows you to run the assembly in the computer’s RAM, bypassing the installation on the hard disk.The latest version of this distribution was released June 30, 2016, version 14.2

The Slackware distribution uses BSD-style startup scripts, despite the fact that almost all Linux distributions use a different style — System V. This OS has the ability to easily manage package management: install, update, uninstall


This operating system is distributed as an open source system and it is free software. This distribution first appeared in June 2011. The operating system uses all the major environments in its desktop. It also provides a large list of repositories for databases (repositories) for installing and managing software.

To date, 9 versions of the update of this system are available, the latest 6.1 was released in October 2018.


This distribution is supported based on Debian and provides convenient and ready-made operating systems. Sparkly is suitable for all computer users, especially for those who want to replace an already existing Operating System with an open source. This distribution appeared in October 2011. After the entire base system was tested, it was changed to Debian and changed under the name “SparkyLinux”

It provides a huge number of applications that help restore damaged data of the operating system, and there is also a large set of Wifi, multimedia and plug-in driver

Gentoo Linux

One of the most popular Linux distributions and has a very advanced features: configuration and configuration, and also has a system for automating and managing packages. This OS has a very powerful, practical and flexible technology Portage. This version appeared for the first time in 1999. The author was Daniel Robbins.

The system developer has set for himself the main priority in this distribution – this is his own build, which will be optimized for specific hardware with a minimum set of all necessary software for users.

Cent OS

The Cent OS Linux distribution was founded in June 2006 by principal developer David Presley. Further, what is interesting in 2010, Cent OS prevails in popularity even Debian, and more than 30% of users of all Linux distributions choose Cent OS.

In 2014, certain tasks were set for work: to create a well-structured platform that is ideally suited for the implementation of developers (because the system is young, she understood perfectly well what exactly developers need) with open source that will integrate

Ubuntu Studio

This distribution is based on Ubuntu and is used as a graphical XFCE environment. This Operating System was designed to quickly deploy ready-to-use photo, video and audio studios. There are many programs available for:

  • Audio (Rosegarden, Mixxx, Hydrogen and others)
  • Video (Stopmotion, CinePaint and others)

To date, released 22 versions of this distribution, the last 17.10 is in development. The main changes that occurred during the update process can be noted as follows:

  • Many applications have been updated;
  • Major changes to the core;
  • Package changes when installing;
  • New themes, design and adding a variety of new programs.


This operating system is characterized primarily by modern design and amazing features. It allows you to make sound effects, video clips at the highest and modern level using open source software.

Here are examples of these applications:

  • Ardor
  • Mixxx
  • VLC Media Player

The main thing that can be noted is that KXstudio is suitable for all types of computers (from low-cost to high-performance), which helps in the work of absolutely any users


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